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Which part of the loop is it going through in this class frame?

C W <tmrsg11 at gmail.com> writes:

> I am new to OOP.

Welcome, and congratulations on learning Python.

> I'm a bit confused about the following code.
>     def print_time(self):

Begins a function definition. The function will receive one argument
(the class instance), and bind the name ?self? to that.

>         time = '6:30'

Creates a new text string, and binds the name ?time? to that.

Nothing else ever uses that local name.

>         print(self.time)

Gets the value of ?self.time? ? which means, get the object referred to
by ?self?, look up an attribute named ?time?, and get the object that
name is bound to ? then pass that object as an argument to call ?print?.

The ?print? function will get a text representation of the object, and
emit that text to output.

Nothing else happens in the function; so, the local name ?time? falls
out of scope and is never used.

The function then returns ?None?.

> clock = Clock('5:30')
> clock.print_time()
> 5:30
> I set time to 6:30

No, you bound *a* name ?time? locally inside the ?print_time? function;
but you never used that afterward.

The local name ?time? is a different reference from the ?self.time?

> How does line-by-line execution run inside a frame? How does __init__
> work?

After Python creates an instance of a class (using that class's
?__new__? method as the constructor), it then tells the instance to
initialise itself; it calls the object's ?__init__? method as the

So the initialiser, named ?__init__?, is called once the object exists,
but before the caller gets to use that object. The initialiser's job is
to initialise the state of the object; your class does this by setting
the per-instance ?time? attribute.

So, by the time your statement binds the name ?clock? to the new Clock
instance, that instance already has an attribute ?clock.time? with the
value ?'5:30'?.

That attribute is then available when something else uses that object;
for example, the ?print_time? method accesses that attribute and prints
it out.

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