osdir.com


[Date Prev][Date Next][Thread Prev][Thread Next][Date Index][Thread Index]

[Python-Dev] RFC: PEP 587 "Python Initialization Configuration": 3rd version


Hi,

Thanks to the constructive discussions, I enhanced my PEP 587. I don't
plan any further change, the PEP is now ready to review (and maybe
even for pronouncement, hi Thomas! :-)).

The Rationale now better explains all challenges and the complexity of
the Python Initialization Configuration.

The "Isolate Python" section is a short guide explaining how configure
Python to embed it into an application.

The "Path Configuration" section elaborates the most interesting part
of the configuration: configure where Python looks for modules
(sys.path). I added PyWideStringList_Insert() to allow to prepend a
path in module_search_paths.

The "Python Issues" section give a long list of issues solved directly
or indirectly by this PEP.

I'm open for bikeshedding on PyConfig fields names and added functions
names ;-) I hesitate for "use_module_search_paths": maybe
"module_search_paths_set" is a better name, as in "is
module_search_paths set?". The purpose of this field is to allow to
have an empty sys.path (ask PyConfig_Read() to not override it). IMHO
an empty sys.path makes sense for some specific use cases, like
executing Pyhon code without any external module.

My PEP 587 proposes better names: Py_FrozenFlag becomes
PyConfig.pathconfig_warnings and Py_DebugFlag becomes
PyConfig.parser_debug. I also avoided double negation. For example,
Py_DontWriteBytecodeFlag becomes write_bytecode.

Changes between version 3 and version 2:

* PyConfig: Add configure_c_stdio and parse_argv; rename _frozen to
pathconfig_warnings.
* Rename functions using bytes strings and wide strings. For example,
Py_PreInitializeFromWideArgs() becomes Py_PreInitializeFromArgs(), and
PyConfig_SetArgv() becomes PyConfig_SetBytesArgv().
* Add PyWideStringList_Insert() function.
* New "Path configuration", "Isolate Python", "Python Issues" and
"Version History" sections.
* PyConfig_SetString() and PyConfig_SetBytesString() now requires the
configuration as the first argument.
* Rename Py_UnixMain() to Py_BytesMain()


HTML version:
https://www.python.org/dev/peps/pep-0587/

Full PEP text below.

I know that the PEP is long, but well, it's a complex topic, and I
chose to add many examples to make the API easier to understand.

Victor

---

PEP: 587
Title: Python Initialization Configuration
Author: Victor Stinner <vstinner at redhat.com>, Nick Coghlan <ncoghlan at gmail.com>
BDFL-Delegate: Thomas Wouters <thomas at python.org>
Discussions-To: python-dev at python.org
Status: Draft
Type: Standards Track
Content-Type: text/x-rst
Created: 27-Mar-2019
Python-Version: 3.8

Abstract
========

Add a new C API to configure the Python Initialization providing finer
control on the whole configuration and better error reporting.

It becomes possible to read the configuration and modify it before it is
applied. It also becomes possible to completely override how Python
computes the module search paths (``sys.path``).

Building a customized Python which behaves as regular Python becomes
easier using the new ``Py_RunMain()`` function. Moreover, command line
arguments passed to ``PyConfig.argv`` are now parsed as the regular
Python parses command line options, and ``PyConfig.xoptions`` are
handled as ``-X opt`` command line options.

This extracts a subset of the API design from the PEP 432 development and
refactoring work that is now considered sufficiently stable to make public
(allowing 3rd party embedding applications access to the same configuration
APIs that the native CPython CLI is now using).


Rationale
=========

Python is highly configurable but its configuration evolved organically.
The initialization configuration is scattered all around the code using
different ways to set them: global configuration variables (ex:
``Py_IsolatedFlag``), environment variables (ex: ``PYTHONPATH``),
command line arguments (ex: ``-b``), configuration files (ex:
``pyvenv.cfg``), function calls (ex: ``Py_SetProgramName()``). A
straightforward and reliable way to configure Python is needed.

Some configuration parameters are not accessible from the C API, or not
easily. For example, there is no API to override the default values of
``sys.executable``.

Some options like ``PYTHONPATH`` can only be set using an environment
variable which has a side effect on Python child processes.

Some options also depends on other options: see `Priority and Rules`_.
Python 3.7 API does not provide a consistent view of the overall
configuration.

The C API of Python 3.7 Initialization takes ``wchar_t*`` strings as
input whereas the Python filesystem encoding is set during the
initialization which can lead to mojibake.

Python 3.7 APIs like ``Py_Initialize()`` aborts the process on memory
allocation failure which is not convenient when Python is embedded.
Moreover, ``Py_Main()`` could exit directly the process rather than
returning an exit code. Proposed new API reports the error or exit code
to the caller which can decide how to handle it.

Implementing the PEP 540 (UTF-8 Mode) and the new ``-X dev`` correctly
was almost impossible in Python 3.6. The code base has been deeply
reworked in Python 3.7 and then in Python 3.8 to read the configuration
into a structure with no side effect. It becomes possible to clear the
configuration (release memory) and read again the configuration if the
encoding changed . It is required to implement properly the UTF-8 which
changes the encoding using ``-X utf8`` command line option. Internally,
bytes ``argv`` strings are decoded from the filesystem encoding. The
``-X dev`` changes the memory allocator (behaves as
``PYTHONMALLOC=debug``), whereas it was not possible to change the
memory allocation *while* parsing the command line arguments. The new
design of the internal implementation not only allowed to implement
properly ``-X utf8`` and ``-X dev``, it also allows to change the Python
behavior way more easily, especially for corner cases like that, and
ensure that the configuration remains consistent: see `Priority and
Rules`_.

This PEP is a partial implementation of PEP 432 which is the overall
design.  New fields can be added later to ``PyConfig`` structure to
finish the implementation of the PEP 432 (e.g. by adding a new partial
initialization API which allows to configure Python using Python objects to
finish the full initialization). However, those features are omitted from this
PEP as even the native CPython CLI doesn't work that way - the public API
proposal in this PEP is limited to features which have already been implemented
and adopted as private APIs for us in the native CPython CLI.


Python Initialization C API
===========================

This PEP proposes to add the following new structures, functions and
macros.

New structures (4):

* ``PyConfig``
* ``PyInitError``
* ``PyPreConfig``
* ``PyWideStringList``

New functions (17):

* ``Py_PreInitialize(config)``
* ``Py_PreInitializeFromBytesArgs(config, argc, argv)``
* ``Py_PreInitializeFromArgs(config, argc, argv)``
* ``PyWideStringList_Append(list, item)``
* ``PyWideStringList_Insert(list, index, item)``
* ``PyConfig_SetString(config,config_str, str)``
* ``PyConfig_SetBytesString(config, config_str, str)``
* ``PyConfig_SetBytesArgv(config, argc, argv)``
* ``PyConfig_SetArgv(config, argc, argv)``
* ``PyConfig_Read(config)``
* ``PyConfig_Clear(config)``
* ``Py_InitializeFromConfig(config)``
* ``Py_InitializeFromBytesArgs(config, argc, argv)``
* ``Py_InitializeFromArgs(config, argc, argv)``
* ``Py_BytesMain(argc, argv)``
* ``Py_RunMain()``
* ``Py_ExitInitError(err)``

New macros (9):

* ``PyPreConfig_INIT``
* ``PyConfig_INIT``
* ``Py_INIT_OK()``
* ``Py_INIT_ERR(MSG)``
* ``Py_INIT_NO_MEMORY()``
* ``Py_INIT_EXIT(EXITCODE)``
* ``Py_INIT_IS_ERROR(err)``
* ``Py_INIT_IS_EXIT(err)``
* ``Py_INIT_FAILED(err)``

This PEP also adds ``_PyRuntimeState.preconfig`` (``PyPreConfig`` type)
and ``PyInterpreterState.config`` (``PyConfig`` type) fields to these
internal structures. ``PyInterpreterState.config`` becomes the new
reference configuration, replacing global configuration variables and
other private variables.


PyWideStringList
----------------

``PyWideStringList`` is a list of ``wchar_t*`` strings.

Example to initialize a string from C static array::

    static wchar_t* argv[2] = {
        L"-c",
        L"pass",
    };
    PyWideStringList config_argv = PyWideStringList_INIT;
    config_argv.length = Py_ARRAY_LENGTH(argv);
    config_argv.items = argv;

``PyWideStringList`` structure fields:

* ``length`` (``Py_ssize_t``)
* ``items`` (``wchar_t**``)

Methods:

* ``PyInitError PyWideStringList_Append(PyWideStringList *list, const
wchar_t *item)``:
  Append *item* to *list*.
* ``PyInitError PyWideStringList_Insert(PyWideStringList *list,
Py_ssize_t index, const wchar_t *item)``:
  Insert *item* into *list* at *index*. If *index* is greater than
  *list* length, just append *item* to *list*.

If *length* is non-zero, *items* must be non-NULL and all strings must
be non-NULL.

PyInitError
-----------

``PyInitError`` is a structure to store an error message or an exit code
for the Python Initialization. For an error, it stores the C function
name which created the error.

Example::

    PyInitError alloc(void **ptr, size_t size)
    {
        *ptr = PyMem_RawMalloc(size);
        if (*ptr == NULL) {
            return Py_INIT_NO_MEMORY();
        }
        return Py_INIT_OK();
    }

    int main(int argc, char **argv)
    {
        void *ptr;
        PyInitError err = alloc(&ptr, 16);
        if (Py_INIT_FAILED(err)) {
            Py_ExitInitError(err);
        }
        PyMem_Free(ptr);
        return 0;
    }

``PyInitError`` fields:

* ``exitcode`` (``int``):
  argument passed to ``exit()``, only set by ``Py_INIT_EXIT()``.
* ``err_msg`` (``const char*``): error message
* private ``_func`` field: used by ``Py_INIT_ERR()`` to store the C
  function name which created the error.
* private ``_type`` field: for internal usage only.

Macro to create an error:

* ``Py_INIT_OK()``: Success.
* ``Py_INIT_ERR(err_msg)``: Initialization error with a message.
* ``Py_INIT_NO_MEMORY()``: Memory allocation failure (out of memory).
* ``Py_INIT_EXIT(exitcode)``: Exit Python with the specified exit code.

Other macros and functions:

* ``Py_INIT_IS_ERROR(err)``: Is the result an error?
* ``Py_INIT_IS_EXIT(err)``: Is the result an exit?
* ``Py_INIT_FAILED(err)``: Is the result an error or an exit? Similar
  to ``Py_INIT_IS_ERROR(err) || Py_INIT_IS_EXIT(err)``.
* ``Py_ExitInitError(err)``: Call ``exit(exitcode)`` on Unix or
  ``ExitProcess(exitcode)`` if the result is an exit, call
  ``Py_FatalError(err_msg)`` if the result is an error. Must not be
  called if the result is a success.

Pre-Initialization with PyPreConfig
-----------------------------------

``PyPreConfig`` structure is used to pre-initialize Python:

* Set the memory allocator
* Configure the LC_CTYPE locale
* Set the UTF-8 mode

Example using the pre-initialization to enable the UTF-8 Mode::

    PyPreConfig preconfig = PyPreConfig_INIT;
    preconfig.utf8_mode = 1;

    PyInitError err = Py_PreInitialize(&preconfig);
    if (Py_INIT_FAILED(err)) {
        Py_ExitInitError(err);
    }

    /* at this point, Python will speak UTF-8 */

    Py_Initialize();
    /* ... use Python API here ... */
    Py_Finalize();

Functions to pre-initialize Python:

* ``PyInitError Py_PreInitialize(const PyPreConfig *config)``
* ``PyInitError Py_PreInitializeFromBytesArgs(const PyPreConfig
*config, int argc, char **argv)``
* ``PyInitError Py_PreInitializeFromArgs(const PyPreConfig *config,
int argc, wchar_t **argv)``

These functions can be called with *config* set to ``NULL``.

If Python is initialized with command line arguments, the command line
arguments must also be passed to pre-initialize Python, since they have
an effect on the pre-configuration like encodings. For example, the
``-X utf8`` command line option enables the UTF-8 Mode.

These functions can be called with *config* set to ``NULL``. The caller
is responsible to handle error or exit using ``Py_INIT_FAILED()`` and
``Py_ExitInitError()``.

``PyPreConfig`` fields:

* ``allocator`` (``char*``, default: ``NULL``):
  Name of the memory allocator (ex: ``"malloc"``).
* ``coerce_c_locale`` (``int``, default: 0):
  If equals to 2, coerce the C locale; if equals to 1, read the LC_CTYPE
  locale to decide if it should be coerced.
* ``coerce_c_locale_warn`` (``int``, default: 0):
  If non-zero, emit a warning if the C locale is coerced.
* ``dev_mode`` (``int``, default: 0):
  See ``PyConfig.dev_mode``.
* ``isolated`` (``int``, default: 0):
  See ``PyConfig.isolated``.
* ``legacy_windows_fs_encoding`` (``int``, Windows only, default: 0):
  If non-zero, disable UTF-8 Mode, set the Python filesystem encoding to
  ``mbcs``, set the filesystem error handler to ``replace``.
* ``use_environment`` (``int``, default: 1):
  See ``PyConfig.use_environment``.
* ``utf8_mode`` (``int``, default: 0):
  If non-zero, enable the UTF-8 mode.

``PyPreConfig`` private field, for internal use only:

* ``_config_version`` (``int``, default: config version):
  Configuration version, used for ABI compatibility.

The C locale coercion (PEP 538) and the UTF-8 Mode (PEP 540) are
disabled by default in ``PyPreConfig``. Set ``coerce_c_locale``,
``coerce_c_locale_warn`` and ``utf8_mode`` to ``-1`` to let Python
enable them depending on the user configuration. In this case, it's
safer to explicitly pre-initialize Python to ensure that encodings are
configured before the Python initialization starts. Example to get the
same encoding than regular Python::

    PyPreConfig preconfig = PyPreConfig_INIT;
    preconfig.coerce_c_locale = -1;
    preconfig.coerce_c_locale_warn = -1;
    preconfig.utf8_mode = -1;

    PyInitError err = Py_PreInitialize(&preconfig);
    if (Py_INIT_FAILED(err)) {
        Py_ExitInitError(err);
    }


Initialization with PyConfig
----------------------------

The ``PyConfig`` structure contains all parameters to configure Python.

Example setting the program name::

    PyInitError err;
    PyConfig config = PyConfig_INIT;

    err = PyConfig_SetString(&config.program_name, L"my_program");
    if (_Py_INIT_FAILED(err)) {
        Py_ExitInitError(err);
    }

    err = Py_InitializeFromConfig(&config);
    PyConfig_Clear(&config);

    if (Py_INIT_FAILED(err)) {
        Py_ExitInitError(err);
    }

``PyConfig`` methods:

* ``PyInitError PyConfig_SetString(PyConfig *config, wchar_t
**config_str, const wchar_t *str)``:
  Copy the wide character string *str* into ``*config_str``.
* ``PyInitError PyConfig_SetBytesString(PyConfig *config, wchar_t
**config_str, const char *str)``:
  Decode *str* using ``Py_DecodeLocale()`` and set the result into
  ``*config_str``. Pre-initialize Python if needed to ensure that
  encodings are properly configured.
* ``PyInitError PyConfig_SetArgv(PyConfig *config, int argc, wchar_t **argv)``:
  Set command line arguments from wide character strings.
* ``PyInitError PyConfig_SetBytesArgv(PyConfig *config, int argc, char
**argv)``:
  Set command line arguments: decode bytes using ``Py_DecodeLocale()``.
  Pre-initialize Python if needed to ensure that encodings are properly
  configured.
* ``PyInitError PyConfig_Read(PyConfig *config)``:
  Read all Python configuration. Fields which are already set are left
  unchanged.
* ``void PyConfig_Clear(PyConfig *config)``:
  Release configuration memory.

Functions to initialize Python:

* ``PyInitError Py_InitializeFromConfig(const PyConfig *config)``:
  Initialize Python from *config* configuration. *config* can be
  ``NULL``.

The caller of these methods and functions is responsible to handle
failure or exit using ``Py_INIT_FAILED()`` and ``Py_ExitInitError()``.

``PyConfig`` fields:

* ``argv`` (``PyWideStringList``, default: empty):
  Command line arguments, ``sys.argv``.
  It is parsed and updated by default, set ``parse_argv`` to 0 to avoid
  that.
* ``base_exec_prefix`` (``wchar_t*``, default: ``NULL``):
  ``sys.base_exec_prefix``.
* ``base_prefix`` (``wchar_t*``, default: ``NULL``):
  ``sys.base_prefix``.
* ``buffered_stdio`` (``int``, default: 1):
  If equals to 0, enable unbuffered mode, make stdout and stderr streams
  to be unbuffered.
* ``bytes_warning`` (``int``, default: 0):
  If equals to 1, issue a warning when comparing ``bytes`` or
  ``bytearray`` with ``str``, or comparing ``bytes`` with ``int``. If
  equal or greater to 2, raise a ``BytesWarning`` exception.
* ``check_hash_pycs_mode`` (``wchar_t*``, default: ``"default"``):
  ``--check-hash-based-pycs`` command line option value (see PEP 552).
* ``configure_c_stdio`` (``int``, default: 1):
  If non-zero, configure C standard streams (``stdio``, ``stdout``,
  ``stdout``).  For example, set their mode to ``O_BINARY`` on Windows.
* ``dev_mode`` (``int``, default: 0):
  Development mode
* ``dll_path`` (``wchar_t*``, Windows only, default: ``NULL``):
  Windows DLL path.
* ``dump_refs`` (``int``, default: 0):
  If non-zero, dump all objects which are still alive at exit
* ``exec_prefix`` (``wchar_t*``, default: ``NULL``):
  ``sys.exec_prefix``.
* ``executable`` (``wchar_t*``, default: ``NULL``):
  ``sys.executable``.
* ``faulthandler`` (``int``, default: 0):
  If non-zero, call ``faulthandler.enable()``.
* ``filesystem_encoding`` (``wchar_t*``, default: ``NULL``):
  Filesystem encoding, ``sys.getfilesystemencoding()``.
* ``filesystem_errors`` (``wchar_t*``, default: ``NULL``):
  Filesystem encoding errors, ``sys.getfilesystemencodeerrors()``.
* ``use_hash_seed`` (``int``, default: 0),
  ``hash_seed`` (``unsigned long``, default: 0):
  Randomized hash function seed.
* ``home`` (``wchar_t*``, default: ``NULL``):
  Python home directory.
* ``import_time`` (``int``, default: 0):
  If non-zero, profile import time.
* ``inspect`` (``int``, default: 0):
  Enter interactive mode after executing a script or a command.
* ``install_signal_handlers`` (``int``, default: 1):
  Install signal handlers?
* ``interactive`` (``int``, default: 0):
  Interactive mode.
* ``legacy_windows_stdio`` (``int``, Windows only, default: 0):
  If non-zero, use ``io.FileIO`` instead of ``WindowsConsoleIO`` for
  ``sys.stdin``, ``sys.stdout`` and ``sys.stderr``.
* ``malloc_stats`` (``int``, default: 0):
  If non-zero, dump memory allocation statistics at exit.
* ``module_search_path_env`` (``wchar_t*``, default: ``NULL``):
  ``PYTHONPATH`` environment variale value.
* ``use_module_search_paths`` (``int``, default: 0),
  ``module_search_paths`` (``PyWideStringList``, default: empty):
  ``sys.path``.
* ``optimization_level`` (``int``, default: 0):
  Compilation optimization level.
* ``parse_argv`` (``int``, default: 1):
  If non-zero, parse ``argv`` command line arguments and update
  ``argv``.
* ``parser_debug`` (``int``, default: 0):
  If non-zero, turn on parser debugging output (for expert only,
  depending on compilation options).
* ``pathconfig_warnings`` (``int``, default: 1):
  If equal to 0, suppress warnings when computing the path
  configuration.
* ``prefix`` (``wchar_t*``, default: ``NULL``):
  ``sys.prefix``.
* ``program_name`` (``wchar_t*``, default: ``NULL``):
  Program name.
* ``program`` (``wchar_t*``, default: ``NULL``):
  ``argv[0]`` or an empty string.
* ``pycache_prefix`` (``wchar_t*``, default: ``NULL``):
  ``.pyc`` cache prefix.
* ``quiet`` (``int``, default: 0):
  Quiet mode. For example, don't display the copyright and version
  messages even in interactive mode.
* ``run_command`` (``wchar_t*``, default: ``NULL``):
  ``-c COMMAND`` argument.
* ``run_filename`` (``wchar_t*``), default: ``NULL``:
  ``python3 SCRIPT`` argument.
* ``run_module`` (``wchar_t*``, default: ``NULL``):
  ``python3 -m MODULE`` argument.
* ``show_alloc_count`` (``int``, default: 0):
  Show allocation counts at exit?
* ``show_ref_count`` (``int``, default: 0):
  Show total reference count at exit?
* ``site_import`` (``int``, default: 1):
  Import the ``site`` module at startup?
* ``skip_source_first_line`` (``int``, default: 0):
  Skip the first line of the source?
* ``stdio_encoding`` (``wchar_t*``, default: ``NULL``),
  ``stdio_errors`` (``wchar_t*``, default: ``NULL``):
  Encoding and encoding errors of ``sys.stdin``, ``sys.stdout``
  and ``sys.stderr``.
* ``tracemalloc`` (``int``, default: 0):
  If non-zero, call ``tracemalloc.start(value)``.
* ``user_site_directory`` (``int``, default: 1):
  If non-zero, add user site directory to ``sys.path``.
* ``verbose`` (``int``, default: 0):
  If non-zero, enable verbose mode.
* ``warnoptions`` (``PyWideStringList``, default: empty):
  Options of the ``warnings`` module to build warnings filters.
* ``write_bytecode`` (``int``, default: 1):
  If non-zero, write ``.pyc`` files.
* ``xoptions`` (``PyWideStringList``, default: empty):
  ``sys._xoptions``.

``PyConfig`` private fields, for internal use only:

* ``_config_version`` (``int``, default: config version):
  Configuration version, used for ABI compatibility.
* ``_install_importlib`` (``int``, default: 1):
  Install importlib?
* ``_init_main`` (``int``, default: 1):
  If equal to 0, stop Python initialization before the "main" phase
  (see PEP 432).

By default, the ``argv`` arguments are parsed as regular Python command
line arguments and ``argv`` is updated to strip parsed Python arguments:
see `Command Line Arguments`_. Set ``parse_argv`` to 0 to avoid parsing
and updating ``argv``. If ``argv`` is empty, an empty string is added to
ensure that ``sys.argv`` always exists and is never empty.

The ``xoptions`` options are parsed to set other options: see `-X
Options`_.

More complete example modifying the configuration before calling
``PyConfig_Read()``, and then modify the read configuration::

    PyInitError init_python(const char *program_name)
    {
        PyInitError err;
        PyConfig config = PyConfig_INIT;

        /* Set the program name before reading the configuraton
           (decode byte string from the locale encoding) */
        err = PyConfig_SetBytesString(&config.program_name,
                                      program_name);
        if (_Py_INIT_FAILED(err)) {
            goto fail;
        }

        /* Read all configuration at once */
        err = PyConfig_Read(&config);
        if (_Py_INIT_FAILED(err)) {
            goto fail;
        }

        /* Append our custom search path to sys.path */
        err = PyWideStringList_Append(&config.module_search_paths,
                                      L"/path/to/more/modules");
        if (_Py_INIT_FAILED(err)) {
            goto fail;
        }

        /* Override executable computed by PyConfig_Read() */
        err = PyConfig_SetString(&config, &config.executable, L"my_executable");
        if (_Py_INIT_FAILED(err)) {
            goto fail;
        }

        err = Py_InitializeFromConfig(&config);

        /* Py_InitializeFromConfig() copied config which must now be
           cleared to release memory */
        PyConfig_Clear(&config);

        return err;

    fail:
        PyConfig_Clear(&config);
        Py_ExitInitError(err);
    }

.. note::
   ``PyConfig`` does not have any field for extra inittab functions:
   ``PyImport_AppendInittab()`` and ``PyImport_ExtendInittab()``
   functions are still relevant (and can be called before Python
   initialization).


Initialization with constant PyConfig
-------------------------------------

When no ``PyConfig`` method is used but only
``Py_InitializeFromConfig()``, the caller is responsible for managing
``PyConfig`` memory. In that case, constant strings and constant string
lists can be used to avoid dynamically allocated memory. It can be used
for most simple configurations.

Example of Python initialization enabling the isolated mode::

    PyConfig config = PyConfig_INIT;
    config.isolated = 1;

    PyInitError err = Py_InitializeFromConfig(&config);
    if (Py_INIT_FAILED(err)) {
        Py_ExitInitError(err);
    }
    /* ... use Python API here ... */
    Py_Finalize();

``PyConfig_Clear()`` is not needed in this example since ``config`` does
not contain any dynamically allocated string:
``Py_InitializeFromConfig`` is responsible to fill other fields and
manage the memory.

For convenience, two other functions are provided for constant
``PyConfig``:

* ``PyInitError Py_InitializeFromArgs(const PyConfig *config, int
argc, wchar_t **argv)``
* ``PyInitError Py_InitializeFromBytesArgs(const PyConfig *config, int
argc, char **argv)``

They be called with *config* set to ``NULL``. The caller of these
functions is responsible to handle failure or exit using
``Py_INIT_FAILED()`` and ``Py_ExitInitError()``.


Path Configuration
------------------

``PyConfig`` contains multiple fields for the path configuration:

* Path configuration input fields:

  * ``home``
  * ``module_search_path_env``
  * ``pathconfig_warnings``

* Path configuration output fields:

  * ``dll_path`` (Windows only)
  * ``exec_prefix``
  * ``executable``
  * ``prefix``
  * ``use_module_search_paths``, ``module_search_paths``

Set ``pathconfig_warnings`` to 0 to suppress warnings when computing the
path configuration.

It is possible to completely ignore the function computing the default
path configuration by setting explicitly all path configuration output
fields listed above. A string is considered as set even if it's an empty
string. ``module_search_paths`` is considered as set if
``use_module_search_paths`` is set to 1. In this case, path
configuration input fields are ignored as well.

If ``base_prefix`` or ``base_exec_prefix`` fields are not set, they
inherit their value from ``prefix`` and ``exec_prefix`` respectively.

If ``site_import`` is non-zero, ``sys.path`` can be modified by the
``site`` module. For example, if ``user_site_directory`` is non-zero,
the user site directory is added to ``sys.path`` (if it exists).


Isolate Python
--------------

The default configuration is designed to behave as a regular Python.
To embed Python into an application, it's possible to tune the
configuration to better isolated the embedded Python from the system:

* Set ``isolated`` to 1 to ignore environment variables and not prepend
  the current directory to ``sys.path``.
* Set the `Path Configuration`_ ("output fields") to ignore the function
  computing the default path configuration.


Py_BytesMain()
--------------

Python 3.7 provides a high-level ``Py_Main()`` function which requires
to pass command line arguments as ``wchar_t*`` strings. It is
non-trivial to use the correct encoding to decode bytes. Python has its
own set of issues with C locale coercion and UTF-8 Mode.

This PEP adds a new ``Py_BytesMain()`` function which takes command line
arguments as bytes::

    int Py_BytesMain(int argc, char **argv)

Py_RunMain()
------------

The new ``Py_RunMain()`` function executes the command
(``PyConfig.run_command``), the script (``PyConfig.run_filename``) or
the module (``PyConfig.run_module``) specified on the command line or in
the configuration, and then finalizes Python. It returns an exit status
that can be passed to the ``exit()`` function.

Example of customized Python in isolated mode::

    #include <Python.h>

    int main(int argc, char *argv[])
    {
        PyConfig config = PyConfig_INIT;
        config.isolated = 1;

        PyInitError err = Py_InitializeFromBytesArgs(&config, argc, argv);
        if (Py_INIT_FAILED(err)) {
            Py_ExitInitError(err);
        }

        /* put more configuration code here if needed */

        return Py_RunMain();
    }

The example is a basic implementation of the "System Python Executable"
discussed in PEP 432.


Memory allocations and Py_DecodeLocale()
----------------------------------------

Python memory allocation functions like ``PyMem_RawMalloc()`` must not
be used before Python pre-initialization, whereas calling directly
``malloc()`` and ``free()`` is always safe.

For ``PyPreConfig`` and constant ``PyConfig``, the caller is responsible
to manage dynamically allocated memory; constant strings and constant
string lists can be used to avoid memory allocations.

Dynamic ``PyConfig`` requires to call ``PyConfig_Clear()`` to release
memory.

``Py_DecodeLocale()`` must not be called before the pre-initialization.


Backwards Compatibility
=======================

This PEP only adds a new API: it leaves the existing API unchanged and
has no impact on the backwards compatibility.

The implementation ensures that the existing API is compatible with the
new API. For example, ``PyConfig`` uses the value of global
configuration variables as default values.


Annex: Python Configuration
===========================

Priority and Rules
------------------

Priority of configuration parameters, highest to lowest:

* ``PyConfig``
* ``PyPreConfig``
* Configuration files
* Command line options
* Environment variables
* Global configuration variables

Priority of warning options, highest to lowest:

* ``PyConfig.warnoptions``
* ``PyConfig.dev_mode`` (add ``"default"``)
* ``PYTHONWARNINGS`` environment variables
* ``-W WARNOPTION`` command line argument
* ``PyConfig.bytes_warning`` (add ``"error::BytesWarning"`` if greater
  than 1, or add ``"default::BytesWarning``)

Rules on ``PyConfig`` parameters:

* If ``isolated`` is non-zero, ``use_environment`` and
  ``user_site_directory`` are set to 0.
* If ``legacy_windows_fs_encoding`` is non-zero, ``utf8_mode`` is set to
  0.
* If ``dev_mode`` is non-zero, ``allocator`` is set to ``"debug"``,
  ``faulthandler`` is set to 1, and ``"default"`` filter is added to
  ``warnoptions``. But the ``PYTHONMALLOC`` environment variable has the
  priority over ``dev_mode`` to set the memory allocator.
* If ``base_prefix`` is not set, it inherits ``prefix`` value.
* If ``base_exec_prefix`` is not set, it inherits ``exec_prefix`` value.
* If the ``python._pth`` configuration file is present, ``isolated`` is
  set to 1 and ``site_import`` is set to 0; but ``site_import`` is set
  to 1 if ``python._pth`` contains ``import site``.

Rules on ``PyConfig`` and ``PyPreConfig`` parameters:

* If ``PyPreConfig.legacy_windows_fs_encoding`` is non-zero,
  set ``PyConfig.utf8_mode`` to 0, set ``PyConfig.filesystem_encoding``
  to ``mbcs``, and set ``PyConfig.filesystem_errors`` to ``replace``.

Configuration Files
-------------------

Python configuration files:

* ``pyvenv.cfg``
* ``python._pth`` (Windows only)
* ``pybuilddir.txt`` (Unix only)

Global Configuration Variables
------------------------------

Global configuration variables mapped to ``PyPreConfig`` fields:

========================================  ================================
Variable                                  Field
========================================  ================================
``Py_IgnoreEnvironmentFlag``              ``use_environment`` (NOT)
``Py_IsolatedFlag``                       ``isolated``
``Py_LegacyWindowsFSEncodingFlag``        ``legacy_windows_fs_encoding``
``Py_UTF8Mode``                           ``utf8_mode``
========================================  ================================

(NOT) means that the ``PyPreConfig`` value is the oposite of the global
configuration variable value.

Global configuration variables mapped to ``PyConfig`` fields:

========================================  ================================
Variable                                  Field
========================================  ================================
``Py_BytesWarningFlag``                   ``bytes_warning``
``Py_DebugFlag``                          ``parser_debug``
``Py_DontWriteBytecodeFlag``              ``write_bytecode`` (NOT)
``Py_FileSystemDefaultEncodeErrors``      ``filesystem_errors``
``Py_FileSystemDefaultEncoding``          ``filesystem_encoding``
``Py_FrozenFlag``                         ``pathconfig_warnings`` (NOT)
``Py_HasFileSystemDefaultEncoding``       ``filesystem_encoding``
``Py_HashRandomizationFlag``              ``use_hash_seed``, ``hash_seed``
``Py_IgnoreEnvironmentFlag``              ``use_environment`` (NOT)
``Py_InspectFlag``                        ``inspect``
``Py_InteractiveFlag``                    ``interactive``
``Py_IsolatedFlag``                       ``isolated``
``Py_LegacyWindowsStdioFlag``             ``legacy_windows_stdio``
``Py_NoSiteFlag``                         ``site_import`` (NOT)
``Py_NoUserSiteDirectory``                ``user_site_directory`` (NOT)
``Py_OptimizeFlag``                       ``optimization_level``
``Py_QuietFlag``                          ``quiet``
``Py_UnbufferedStdioFlag``                ``buffered_stdio`` (NOT)
``Py_VerboseFlag``                        ``verbose``
``_Py_HasFileSystemDefaultEncodeErrors``  ``filesystem_errors``
========================================  ================================

(NOT) means that the ``PyConfig`` value is the oposite of the global
configuration variable value.

``Py_LegacyWindowsFSEncodingFlag`` and ``Py_LegacyWindowsStdioFlag`` are
only available on Windows.

Command Line Arguments
----------------------

Usage::

    python3 [options]
    python3 [options] -c COMMAND
    python3 [options] -m MODULE
    python3 [options] SCRIPT


Command line options mapped to pseudo-action on ``PyPreConfig`` fields:

================================  ================================
Option                            ``PyConfig`` field
================================  ================================
``-E``                            ``use_environment = 0``
``-I``                            ``isolated = 1``
``-X dev``                        ``dev_mode = 1``
``-X utf8``                       ``utf8_mode = 1``
``-X utf8=VALUE``                 ``utf8_mode = VALUE``
================================  ================================

Command line options mapped to pseudo-action on ``PyConfig`` fields:

================================  ================================
Option                            ``PyConfig`` field
================================  ================================
``-b``                            ``bytes_warning++``
``-B``                            ``write_bytecode = 0``
``-c COMMAND``                    ``run_command = COMMAND``
``--check-hash-based-pycs=MODE``  ``_check_hash_pycs_mode = MODE``
``-d``                            ``parser_debug++``
``-E``                            ``use_environment = 0``
``-i``                            ``inspect++`` and ``interactive++``
``-I``                            ``isolated = 1``
``-m MODULE``                     ``run_module = MODULE``
``-O``                            ``optimization_level++``
``-q``                            ``quiet++``
``-R``                            ``use_hash_seed = 0``
``-s``                            ``user_site_directory = 0``
``-S``                            ``site_import``
``-t``                            ignored (kept for backwards compatibility)
``-u``                            ``buffered_stdio = 0``
``-v``                            ``verbose++``
``-W WARNING``                    add ``WARNING`` to ``warnoptions``
``-x``                            ``skip_source_first_line = 1``
``-X OPTION``                     add ``OPTION`` to ``xoptions``
================================  ================================

``-h``, ``-?`` and ``-V`` options are handled without ``PyConfig``.

-X Options
----------

-X options mapped to pseudo-action on ``PyConfig`` fields:

================================  ================================
Option                            ``PyConfig`` field
================================  ================================
``-X dev``                        ``dev_mode = 1``
``-X faulthandler``               ``faulthandler = 1``
``-X importtime``                 ``import_time = 1``
``-X pycache_prefix=PREFIX``      ``pycache_prefix = PREFIX``
``-X showalloccount``             ``show_alloc_count = 1``
``-X showrefcount``               ``show_ref_count = 1``
``-X tracemalloc=N``              ``tracemalloc = N``
================================  ================================

Environment Variables
---------------------

Environment variables mapped to ``PyPreConfig`` fields:

=================================  =============================================
Variable                           ``PyPreConfig`` field
=================================  =============================================
``PYTHONCOERCECLOCALE``            ``coerce_c_locale``, ``coerce_c_locale_warn``
``PYTHONDEVMODE``                  ``dev_mode``
``PYTHONLEGACYWINDOWSFSENCODING``  ``legacy_windows_fs_encoding``
``PYTHONMALLOC``                   ``allocator``
``PYTHONUTF8``                     ``utf8_mode``
=================================  =============================================

Environment variables mapped to ``PyConfig`` fields:

=================================  ====================================
Variable                           ``PyConfig`` field
=================================  ====================================
``PYTHONDEBUG``                    ``parser_debug``
``PYTHONDEVMODE``                  ``dev_mode``
``PYTHONDONTWRITEBYTECODE``        ``write_bytecode``
``PYTHONDUMPREFS``                 ``dump_refs``
``PYTHONEXECUTABLE``               ``program_name``
``PYTHONFAULTHANDLER``             ``faulthandler``
``PYTHONHASHSEED``                 ``use_hash_seed``, ``hash_seed``
``PYTHONHOME``                     ``home``
``PYTHONINSPECT``                  ``inspect``
``PYTHONIOENCODING``               ``stdio_encoding``, ``stdio_errors``
``PYTHONLEGACYWINDOWSSTDIO``       ``legacy_windows_stdio``
``PYTHONMALLOCSTATS``              ``malloc_stats``
``PYTHONNOUSERSITE``               ``user_site_directory``
``PYTHONOPTIMIZE``                 ``optimization_level``
``PYTHONPATH``                     ``module_search_path_env``
``PYTHONPROFILEIMPORTTIME``        ``import_time``
``PYTHONPYCACHEPREFIX,``           ``pycache_prefix``
``PYTHONTRACEMALLOC``              ``tracemalloc``
``PYTHONUNBUFFERED``               ``buffered_stdio``
``PYTHONVERBOSE``                  ``verbose``
``PYTHONWARNINGS``                 ``warnoptions``
=================================  ====================================

``PYTHONLEGACYWINDOWSFSENCODING`` and ``PYTHONLEGACYWINDOWSSTDIO`` are
specific to Windows.


Annex: Python 3.7 API
=====================

Python 3.7 has 4 functions in its C API to initialize and finalize
Python:

* ``Py_Initialize()``, ``Py_InitializeEx()``: initialize Python
* ``Py_Finalize()``, ``Py_FinalizeEx()``: finalize Python

Python 3.7 can be configured using `Global Configuration Variables`_,
`Environment Variables`_, and the following functions:

* ``PyImport_AppendInittab()``
* ``PyImport_ExtendInittab()``
* ``PyMem_SetAllocator()``
* ``PyMem_SetupDebugHooks()``
* ``PyObject_SetArenaAllocator()``
* ``Py_SetPath()``
* ``Py_SetProgramName()``
* ``Py_SetPythonHome()``
* ``Py_SetStandardStreamEncoding()``
* ``PySys_AddWarnOption()``
* ``PySys_AddXOption()``
* ``PySys_ResetWarnOptions()``

There is also a high-level ``Py_Main()`` function.


Python Issues
=============

Issues that will be fixed by this PEP, directly or indirectly:

* `bpo-1195571 <https://bugs.python.org/issue1195571>`_: "simple
  callback system for Py_FatalError"
* `bpo-11320 <https://bugs.python.org/issue11320>`_:
  "Usage of API method Py_SetPath causes errors in Py_Initialize()
  (Posix ony)"
* `bpo-13533 <https://bugs.python.org/issue13533>`_: "Would like
  Py_Initialize to play friendly with host app"
* `bpo-14956 <https://bugs.python.org/issue14956>`_: "custom PYTHONPATH
  may break apps embedding Python"
* `bpo-19983 <https://bugs.python.org/issue19983>`_: "When interrupted
  during startup, Python should not call abort() but exit()"
* `bpo-22213 <https://bugs.python.org/issue22213>`_: "Make pyvenv style
  virtual environments easier to configure when embedding Python". This
  PEP more or
* `bpo-22257 <https://bugs.python.org/issue22257>`_: "PEP 432: Redesign
  the interpreter startup sequence"
* `bpo-29778 <https://bugs.python.org/issue29778>`_: "_Py_CheckPython3
  uses uninitialized dllpath when embedder sets module path with
  Py_SetPath"
* `bpo-30560 <https://bugs.python.org/issue30560>`_: "Add
  Py_SetFatalErrorAbortFunc: Allow embedding program to handle fatal
  errors".
* `bpo-31745 <https://bugs.python.org/issue31745>`_: "Overloading
  "Py_GetPath" does not work"
* `bpo-32573 <https://bugs.python.org/issue32573>`_: "All sys attributes
  (.argv, ...) should exist in embedded environments".
* `bpo-34725 <https://bugs.python.org/issue34725>`_:
  "Py_GetProgramFullPath() odd behaviour in Windows"
* `bpo-36204 <https://bugs.python.org/issue36204>`_: "Deprecate calling
  Py_Main() after Py_Initialize()? Add Py_InitializeFromArgv()?"
* `bpo-33135 <https://bugs.python.org/issue33135>`_: "Define field
  prefixes for the various config structs". The PEP now defines well
  how warnings options are handled.

Issues of the PEP implementation:

* `bpo-16961 <https://bugs.python.org/issue16961>`_: "No regression
  tests for -E and individual environment vars"
* `bpo-20361 <https://bugs.python.org/issue20361>`_: "-W command line
  options and PYTHONWARNINGS environmental variable should not override
  -b / -bb command line options"
* `bpo-26122 <https://bugs.python.org/issue26122>`_: "Isolated mode
  doesn't ignore PYTHONHASHSEED"
* `bpo-29818 <https://bugs.python.org/issue29818>`_:
  "Py_SetStandardStreamEncoding leads to a memory error in debug mode"
* `bpo-31845 <https://bugs.python.org/issue31845>`_:
  "PYTHONDONTWRITEBYTECODE and PYTHONOPTIMIZE have no effect"
* `bpo-32030 <https://bugs.python.org/issue32030>`_: "PEP 432: Rewrite
  Py_Main()"
* `bpo-32124 <https://bugs.python.org/issue32124>`_: "Document functions
  safe to be called before Py_Initialize()"
* `bpo-33042 <https://bugs.python.org/issue33042>`_: "New 3.7 startup
  sequence crashes PyInstaller"
* `bpo-33932 <https://bugs.python.org/issue33932>`_: "Calling
  Py_Initialize() twice now triggers a fatal error (Python 3.7)"
* `bpo-34008 <https://bugs.python.org/issue34008>`_: "Do we support
  calling Py_Main() after Py_Initialize()?"
* `bpo-34170 <https://bugs.python.org/issue34170>`_: "Py_Initialize():
  computing path configuration must not have side effect (PEP 432)"
* `bpo-34589 <https://bugs.python.org/issue34589>`_: "Py_Initialize()
  and Py_Main() should not enable C locale coercion"
* `bpo-34639 <https://bugs.python.org/issue34639>`_:
  "PYTHONCOERCECLOCALE is ignored when using -E or -I option"
* `bpo-36142 <https://bugs.python.org/issue36142>`_: "Add a new
  _PyPreConfig step to Python initialization to setup memory allocator
  and encodings"
* `bpo-36202 <https://bugs.python.org/issue36202>`_: "Calling
  Py_DecodeLocale() before _PyPreConfig_Write() can produce mojibake"
* `bpo-36301 <https://bugs.python.org/issue36301>`_: "Add
  _Py_PreInitialize() function"
* `bpo-36443 <https://bugs.python.org/issue36443>`_: "Disable
  coerce_c_locale and utf8_mode by default in _PyPreConfig?"
* `bpo-36444 <https://bugs.python.org/issue36444>`_: "Python
  initialization: remove _PyMainInterpreterConfig"
* `bpo-36471 <https://bugs.python.org/issue36471>`_: "PEP 432, PEP 587:
  Add _Py_RunMain()"
* `bpo-36763 <https://bugs.python.org/issue36763>`_: "PEP 587: Rework
  initialization API to prepare second version of the PEP"
* `bpo-36775 <https://bugs.python.org/issue36775>`_: "Rework filesystem
  codec implementation"
* `bpo-36900 <https://bugs.python.org/issue36900>`_: "Use _PyCoreConfig
  rather than global configuration variables"

Issues related to this PEP:

* `bpo-12598 <https://bugs.python.org/issue12598>`_: "Move sys variable
  initialization from import.c to sysmodule.c"
* `bpo-15577 <https://bugs.python.org/issue15577>`_: "Real argc and argv
  in embedded interpreter"
* `bpo-16202 <https://bugs.python.org/issue16202>`_: "sys.path[0]
  security issues"
* `bpo-18309 <https://bugs.python.org/issue18309>`_: "Make python
  slightly more relocatable"
* `bpo-25631 <https://bugs.python.org/issue25631>`_: "Segmentation fault
  with invalid Unicode command-line arguments in embedded Python"
* `bpo-26007 <https://bugs.python.org/issue26007>`_: "Support embedding
  the standard library in an executable"
* `bpo-31210 <https://bugs.python.org/issue31210>`_: "Can not import
  modules if sys.prefix contains DELIM".
* `bpo-31349 <https://bugs.python.org/issue31349>`_: "Embedded
  initialization ignores Py_SetProgramName()"
* `bpo-33919 <https://bugs.python.org/issue33919>`_: "Expose
  _PyCoreConfig structure to Python"
* `bpo-35173 <https://bugs.python.org/issue35173>`_: "Re-use already
  existing functionality to allow Python 2.7.x (both embedded and
  standalone) to locate the module path according to the shared library"


Version History
===============

* Version 3:

  * ``PyConfig``: Add ``configure_c_stdio`` and ``parse_argv``,
    rename ``_frozen`` to ``pathconfig_warnings``.
  * Rename functions using bytes strings and wide character strings. For
    example, ``Py_PreInitializeFromWideArgs`` becomes
    ``Py_PreInitializeFromArgs``, and ``PyConfig_SetArgv`` becomes
    ``PyConfig_SetBytesArgv``.
  * Add ``PyWideStringList_Insert()`` function.
  * New "Path configuration", "Isolate Python", "Python Issues"
    and "Version History" sections.
  * ``PyConfig_SetString()`` and ``PyConfig_SetBytesString()`` now
    requires the configuration as the first argument.
  * Rename ``Py_UnixMain()`` to ``Py_BytesMain()``

* Version 2: Add ``PyConfig`` methods (ex: ``PyConfig_Read()``), add
  ``PyWideStringList_Append()``, rename ``PyWideCharList`` to
  ``PyWideStringList``.
* Version 1: Initial version.

Copyright
=========

This document has been placed in the public domain.