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[Python-Dev] RFC: PEP 587 "Python Initialization Configuration": 2nd version


Hi,

Thanks to Steve Dower's feedback, I enhanced and completed my PEP 587.
Main changes:

* It is now possible to read the configuration and then modify the
read configuration. For example, new directories can be added to
PyConfig.module_search_paths (see the example below and the example in
the PEP)
* PyConfig is now "dynamic" by default: strings are duplicated and
PyConfig_Clear() must be called to release memory
* PyConfig now only uses wchar_t* for strings (unicode): char* (bytes)
is no longer used. I had to hack CPython internals for that :-)
* I added a "_config_version" private field to PyPreConfig and
PyConfig to prepare the backward compatibility for future changes.
* I removed the Open Question section: all known issues have been fixed.

During the Language Summit, Brett Cannon said that Steve Dower
declined the offer to be the BDFL-delegate for this PEP. Thomas
Wouters proposed himself to be the new BDFL-delegate.

Example to read the configuration, append a directory to sys.path
(module_search_paths) and then initialize Python with this
configuration:

    void init_python(void)
    {
        PyInitError err;
        PyConfig config = PyConfig_INIT;

        err = PyConfig_Read(&config);
        if (_Py_INIT_FAILED(err)) {
            goto fail;
        }

        err = PyWideStringList_Append(&config.module_search_paths,
                                      L"/path/to/more/modules");
        if (_Py_INIT_FAILED(err)) {
            goto fail;
        }

        err = Py_InitializeFromConfig(&config);
        if (_Py_INIT_FAILED(err)) {
            goto fail;
        }

        PyConfig_Clear(&config);
        return;

    fail:
        PyConfig_Clear(&config);
        Py_ExitInitError(err);
    }

The HTML version will be online shortly:
https://www.python.org/dev/peps/pep-0587/

Full text below.

Victor


PEP: 587
Title: Python Initialization Configuration
Author: Nick Coghlan <ncoghlan at gmail.com>, Victor Stinner <vstinner at redhat.com>
Discussions-To: python-dev at python.org
Status: Draft
Type: Standards Track
Content-Type: text/x-rst
Created: 27-Mar-2019
Python-Version: 3.8

Abstract
========

Add a new C API to configure the Python Initialization providing finer
control on the whole configuration and better error reporting.


Rationale
=========

Python is highly configurable but its configuration evolved organically:
configuration parameters is scattered all around the code using
different ways to set them (mostly global configuration variables and
functions).  A straightforward and reliable way to configure Python is
needed. Some configuration parameters are not accessible from the C API,
or not easily.

The C API of Python 3.7 Initialization takes ``wchar_t*`` strings as
input whereas the Python filesystem encoding is set during the
initialization.

This PEP is a partial implementation of PEP 432 which is the overall
design.  New fields can be added later to ``PyConfig`` structure to
finish the implementation of the PEP 432 (add a new partial
initialization which allows to configure Python using Python objects to
finish the full initialization).


Python Initialization C API
===========================

This PEP proposes to add the following new structures, functions and
macros.

New structures (4):

* ``PyConfig``
* ``PyInitError``
* ``PyPreConfig``
* ``PyWideStringList``

New functions (16):

* ``Py_PreInitialize(config)``
* ``Py_PreInitializeFromArgs(config, argc, argv)``
* ``Py_PreInitializeFromWideArgs(config, argc, argv)``
* ``PyWideStringList_Append(list, item)``
* ``PyConfig_DecodeLocale(config_str, str)``
* ``PyConfig_SetString(config_str, str)``
* ``PyConfig_Read(config)``
* ``PyConfig_SetArgv(config, argc, argv)``
* ``PyConfig_SetWideArgv(config, argc, argv)``
* ``PyConfig_Clear(config)``
* ``Py_InitializeFromConfig(config)``
* ``Py_InitializeFromArgs(config, argc, argv)``
* ``Py_InitializeFromWideArgs(config, argc, argv)``
* ``Py_UnixMain(argc, argv)``
* ``Py_ExitInitError(err)``
* ``Py_RunMain()``

New macros (9):

* ``PyPreConfig_INIT``
* ``PyConfig_INIT``
* ``Py_INIT_OK()``
* ``Py_INIT_ERR(MSG)``
* ``Py_INIT_NO_MEMORY()``
* ``Py_INIT_EXIT(EXITCODE)``
* ``Py_INIT_IS_ERROR(err)``
* ``Py_INIT_IS_EXIT(err)``
* ``Py_INIT_FAILED(err)``

This PEP also adds ``_PyRuntimeState.preconfig`` (``PyPreConfig`` type)
and ``PyInterpreterState.config`` (``PyConfig`` type) fields to these
internal structures. ``PyInterpreterState.config`` becomes the new
reference configuration, replacing global configuration variables and
other private variables.


PyWideStringList
----------------

``PyWideStringList`` is a list of ``wchar_t*`` strings.

Example to initialize a string from C static array::

    static wchar_t* argv[2] = {
        L"-c",
        L"pass",
    };
    PyWideStringList config_argv = PyWideStringList_INIT;
    config_argv.length = Py_ARRAY_LENGTH(argv);
    config_argv.items = argv;

``PyWideStringList`` structure fields:

* ``length`` (``Py_ssize_t``)
* ``items`` (``wchar_t**``)

Methods:

* ``PyInitError PyWideStringList_Append(PyWideStringList *list, const
wchar_t *item)``:
  Append *item* to *list*.

If *length* is non-zero, *items* must be non-NULL and all strings must
be non-NULL.

PyInitError
-----------

``PyInitError`` is a structure to store an error message or an exit code
for the Python Initialization. For an error, it stores the C function
name which created the error.

Example::

    PyInitError alloc(void **ptr, size_t size)
    {
        *ptr = PyMem_RawMalloc(size);
        if (*ptr == NULL) {
            return Py_INIT_NO_MEMORY();
        }
        return Py_INIT_OK();
    }

    int main(int argc, char **argv)
    {
        void *ptr;
        PyInitError err = alloc(&ptr, 16);
        if (Py_INIT_FAILED(err)) {
            Py_ExitInitError(err);
        }
        PyMem_Free(ptr);
        return 0;
    }

``PyInitError`` fields:

* ``exitcode`` (``int``):
  argument passed to ``exit()`` on Unix and to ``ExitProcess()`` on
  Windows. Only set by ``Py_INIT_EXIT()``.
* ``err_msg`` (``const char*``): error message
* private ``_func`` field: used by ``Py_INIT_ERR()`` to store the C
  function name which created the error.
* private ``_type`` field: for internal usage only.

Macro to create an error:

* ``Py_INIT_OK()``: success
* ``Py_INIT_ERR(err_msg)``: initialization error with a message
* ``Py_INIT_NO_MEMORY()``: memory allocation failure (out of memory)
* ``Py_INIT_EXIT(exitcode)``: exit Python with the specified exit code

Other macros and functions:

* ``Py_INIT_IS_ERROR(err)``: Is the result an error?
* ``Py_INIT_IS_EXIT(err)``: Is the result an exit?
* ``Py_INIT_FAILED(err)``: Is the result an error or an exit? Similar
  to ``Py_INIT_IS_ERROR(err) || Py_INIT_IS_EXIT(err)``.
* ``Py_ExitInitError(err)``: Call ``exit(exitcode)`` on Unix or
  ``ExitProcess(exitcode)`` if the result is an exit, call
  ``Py_FatalError(err_msg)`` if the result is an error. Must not be
  called if the result is a success.

Pre-Initialization with PyPreConfig
-----------------------------------

``PyPreConfig`` structure is used to pre-initialize Python:

* Set the memory allocator
* Configure the LC_CTYPE locale
* Set the UTF-8 mode

Example using the pre-initialization to enable the UTF-8 Mode::

    PyPreConfig preconfig = PyPreConfig_INIT;
    preconfig.utf8_mode = 1;

    PyInitError err = Py_PreInitialize(&preconfig);
    if (Py_INIT_FAILED(err)) {
        Py_ExitInitError(err);
    }

    /* at this point, Python will speak UTF-8 */

    Py_Initialize();
    /* ... use Python API here ... */
    Py_Finalize();

Functions to pre-initialize Python:

* ``PyInitError Py_PreInitialize(const PyPreConfig *config)``
* ``PyInitError Py_PreInitializeFromArgs(const PyPreConfig *config,
int argc, char **argv)``
* ``PyInitError Py_PreInitializeFromWideArgs(const PyPreConfig
*config, int argc, wchar_t **argv)``

If Python should be pre-initialized explicitly first and then
initialized with command line arguments, it is possible to pass these
command line arguments to the pre-initialization since they impact the
encodings. For example, ``-X utf8`` enables the UTF-8 Mode.

These functions can be called with *config* set to ``NULL``. The caller
is responsible to handle error using ``Py_INIT_FAILED()`` and
``Py_ExitInitError()``.

``PyPreConfig`` fields:

* ``allocator`` (``char*``): name of the memory allocator (ex: ``"malloc"``)
* ``coerce_c_locale_warn`` (``int``): if non-zero, emit a warning if
the C locale
  is coerced.
* ``coerce_c_locale`` (``int``): if equals to 2, coerce the C locale;
if equals to
  1, read the LC_CTYPE to decide if it should be coerced.
* ``dev_mode`` (``int``): see ``PyConfig.dev_mode``
* ``isolated`` (``int``): see ``PyConfig.isolated``
* ``legacy_windows_fs_encoding`` (``int``, Windows only): if non-zero, set the
  Python filesystem encoding to ``"mbcs"``.
* ``use_environment`` (``int``): see ``PyConfig.use_environment``
* ``utf8_mode`` (``int``): if non-zero, enable the UTF-8 mode

There is also a private field which is for internal-usage only:

* ``_config_version`` (``int``): Configuration version, used for ABI
  compatibility

The C locale coercion (PEP 538) and the UTF-8 Mode (PEP 540) are
disabled by default in ``PyPreConfig``. Set ``coerce_c_locale``,
``coerce_c_locale_warn`` and ``utf8_mode`` to ``-1`` to let Python
enable them depending on the user configuration.

Initialization with PyConfig
----------------------------

The ``PyConfig`` structure contains all parameters to configure Python.

Example::

    PyInitError err;
    PyConfig config = PyConfig_INIT;

    err = PyConfig_SetString(&config.program_name, L"my_program");
    if (_Py_INIT_FAILED(err)) {
        Py_ExitInitError(err);
    }

    err = Py_InitializeFromConfig(&config);
    PyConfig_Clear(&config);

    if (Py_INIT_FAILED(err)) {
        Py_ExitInitError(err);
    }

``PyConfig`` methods:

* ``PyInitError PyConfig_SetString(wchar_t **config_str, const wchar_t *str)``:
  Set a config wide string field from *str* (copy the string)
* ``PyInitError PyConfig_DecodeLocale(wchar_t **config_str, const char *str)``:
  Decode *str* using ``Py_DecodeLocale()`` and set the result into
  ``*config_str``. Pre-initialize Python if needed to ensure that
  encodings are properly configured.
* ``PyInitError PyConfig_SetArgv(PyConfig *config, int argc, char **argv)``:
  Set command line arguments (decode bytes). Pre-initialize Python if
  needed to ensure that encodings are properly configured.
* ``PyInitError PyConfig_SetWideArgv(PyConfig *config, int argc,
wchar_t **argv)``:
  Set command line arguments (wide characters).
* ``PyInitError PyConfig_Read(PyConfig *config)``:
  Read all Python configuration
* ``void PyConfig_Clear(PyConfig *config)``:
  Release memory

Functions to initialize Python:

* ``PyInitError Py_InitializeFromConfig(const PyConfig *config)``

These functions can be called with *config* set to ``NULL``. The caller
is responsible to handler error using ``Py_INIT_FAILED()`` and
``Py_ExitInitError()``.

PyConfig fields:

* ``argv`` (``PyWideStringList``): ``sys.argv``
* ``base_exec_prefix`` (``wchar_t*``): ``sys.base_exec_prefix``
* ``base_prefix`` (``wchar_t*``): ``sys.base_prefix``
* ``buffered_stdio`` (``int``): if equals to 0, enable unbuffered mode,
  make stdout and stderr streams to be unbuffered.
* ``bytes_warning`` (``int``): if equals to 1, issue a warning when
  comparing ``bytes`` or ``bytearray`` with ``str``, or comparing
  ``bytes`` with ``int``. If equal or greater to 2, raise a
  ``BytesWarning`` exception.
* ``check_hash_pycs_mode`` (``wchar_t*``): ``--check-hash-based-pycs``
  command line option value (see PEP 552)
* ``dev_mode`` (``int``): Development mode
* ``dll_path`` (``wchar_t*``, Windows only): Windows DLL path
* ``dump_refs`` (``int``): if non-zero, display all objects still alive
  at exit
* ``exec_prefix`` (``wchar_t*``): ``sys.exec_prefix``
* ``executable`` (``wchar_t*``): ``sys.executable``
* ``faulthandler`` (``int``): if non-zero, call
  ``faulthandler.enable()``
* ``filesystem_encoding`` (``wchar_t*``): Filesystem encoding,
  ``sys.getfilesystemencoding()``
* ``filesystem_errors`` (``wchar_t*``): Filesystem encoding errors,
  ``sys.getfilesystemencodeerrors()``
* ``use_hash_seed`` (``int``), ``hash_seed`` (``unsigned long``):
  randomized hash function seed
* ``home`` (``wchar_t*``): Python home
* ``import_time`` (``int``): if non-zero, profile import time
* ``inspect`` (``int``): enter interactive mode after executing a script or a
  command
* ``install_signal_handlers`` (``int``): install signal handlers?
* ``interactive`` (``int``): interactive mode
* ``legacy_windows_stdio`` (``int``, Windows only): if non-zero, use
  ``io.FileIO`` instead of ``WindowsConsoleIO`` for ``sys.stdin``,
  ``sys.stdout`` and ``sys.stderr``.
* ``malloc_stats`` (``int``): if non-zero, dump memory allocation
  statistics at exit
* ``module_search_path_env`` (``wchar_t*``): ``PYTHONPATH``
environment variale value
* ``use_module_search_paths`` (``int``), ``module_search_paths``
  (``PyWideStringList``): ``sys.path``
* ``optimization_level`` (``int``): compilation optimization level
* ``parser_debug`` (``int``): if non-zero, turn on parser debugging output (for
  expert only, depending on compilation options).
* ``prefix`` (``wchar_t*``): ``sys.prefix``
* ``program_name`` (``wchar_t*``): Program name
* ``program`` (``wchar_t*``): ``argv[0]`` or an empty string
* ``pycache_prefix`` (``wchar_t*``): ``.pyc`` cache prefix
* ``quiet`` (``int``): quiet mode (ex: don't display the copyright and version
  messages even in interactive mode)
* ``run_command`` (``wchar_t*``): ``-c COMMAND`` argument
* ``run_filename`` (``wchar_t*``): ``python3 SCRIPT`` argument
* ``run_module`` (``wchar_t*``): ``python3 -m MODULE`` argument
* ``show_alloc_count`` (``int``): show allocation counts at exit?
* ``show_ref_count`` (``int``): show total reference count at exit?
* ``site_import`` (``int``): import the ``site`` module at startup?
* ``skip_source_first_line`` (``int``): skip the first line of the source
* ``stdio_encoding`` (``wchar_t*``), ``stdio_errors`` (``wchar_t*``):
encoding and encoding errors of
  ``sys.stdin``, ``sys.stdout`` and ``sys.stderr``
* ``tracemalloc`` (``int``): if non-zero, call
  ``tracemalloc.start(value)``
* ``user_site_directory`` (``int``): if non-zero, add user site directory to
  ``sys.path``
* ``verbose`` (``int``): if non-zero, enable verbose mode
* ``warnoptions`` (``PyWideStringList``): options of the ``warnings``
module to build filters
* ``write_bytecode`` (``int``): if non-zero, write ``.pyc`` files
* ``xoptions`` (``PyWideStringList``): ``sys._xoptions``

There are also private fields which are for internal-usage only:

* ``_config_version`` (``int``): Configuration version, used for ABI
  compatibility
* ``_frozen`` (``int``): Emit warning when computing the path
  configuration?
* ``_install_importlib`` (``int``): Install importlib?

More complete commented example modifying the configuration before
calling ``PyConfig_Read()`` and then modify the read configuration::

    PyInitError init_python(const char *program_name)
    {
        PyInitError err;
        PyConfig config = PyConfig_INIT;

        /* Set the program name before reading the configuraton
           (decode byte string from the locale encoding) */
        err = PyConfig_DecodeLocale(&config.program_name,
                                    program_name);
        if (_Py_INIT_FAILED(err)) {
            goto fail;
        }

        /* Read all configuration at once */
        err = PyConfig_Read(&config);
        if (_Py_INIT_FAILED(err)) {
            goto fail;
        }

        /* Append our custom search path to sys.path */
        err = PyWideStringList_Append(&config.module_search_paths,
                                      L"/path/to/more/modules");
        if (_Py_INIT_FAILED(err)) {
            goto fail;
        }

        /* Override executable computed by PyConfig_Read() */
        err = PyConfig_SetString(&config.executable, L"my_executable");
        if (_Py_INIT_FAILED(err)) {
            goto fail;
        }

        err = Py_InitializeFromConfig(&config);

        /* Py_InitializeFromConfig() copied config which must now be
           cleared to release memory */
        PyConfig_Clear(&config);

        return err;

    fail:
        PyConfig_Clear(&config);
        Py_ExitInitError(err);
    }

.. note::
   ``PyConfig`` does not have any field for extra inittab functions:
   ``PyImport_AppendInittab()`` and ``PyImport_ExtendInittab()``
   functions are still relevant.


Initialization with static PyConfig
-----------------------------------

When no ``PyConfig`` method is used but only
``Py_InitializeFromConfig()``, the caller is responsible for managing
``PyConfig`` memory which means that static strings and static string
lists can be used rather than using dynamically allocated memory.  It
can be used for most simple configurations.

Example of Python initialization enabling the isolated mode::

    PyConfig config = PyConfig_INIT;
    config.isolated = 1;

    PyInitError err = Py_InitializeFromConfig(&config);
    if (Py_INIT_FAILED(err)) {
        Py_ExitInitError(err);
    }
    /* ... use Python API here ... */
    Py_Finalize();

In this example, ``PyConfig_Clear()`` is not needed since ``config``
does not contain any dynamically allocated string:
``Py_InitializeFromConfig`` is responsible for filling other fields
and manage the memory.

For convenience, two other functions are provided:

* ``PyInitError Py_InitializeFromArgs(const PyConfig *config, int
argc, char **argv)``
* ``PyInitError Py_InitializeFromWideArgs(const PyConfig *config, int
argc, wchar_t **argv)``

These functions can be used with static ``PyConfig``.

Pseudo-code of ``Py_InitializeFromArgs()``::

    PyInitError init_with_args(const PyConfig *src_config, int argc,
char **argv)
    {
        PyInitError err;
        PyConfig config = PyConfig_INIT;

        /* Copy strings and string lists
         * (memory dynamically allocated on the heap) */
        err = _PyConfig_Copy(&config, src_config);
        if (Py_INIT_FAILED(err)) {
            goto exit;
        }

        /* Set config.argv: decode argv bytes. Pre-initialize Python
           if needed to ensure that the encodings are properly
           configured. */
        err = PyConfig_SetArgv(&config, argc, argv);
        if (Py_INIT_FAILED(err)) {
            goto exit;
        }

        err = Py_InitializeFromConfig(&config);

    exit:
        PyConfig_Clear(&config);
        return err;
    }

where ``_PyConfig_Copy()`` is an internal function. The actual
implementation of ``Py_InitializeFromArgs()`` is more complex.


Py_UnixMain()
-------------

Python 3.7 provides a high-level ``Py_Main()`` function which requires
to pass command line arguments as ``wchar_t*`` strings. It is
non-trivial to use the correct encoding to decode bytes. Python has its
own set of issues with C locale coercion and UTF-8 Mode.

This PEP adds a new ``Py_UnixMain()`` function which takes command line
arguments as bytes::

    int Py_UnixMain(int argc, char **argv)

Py_RunMain()
------------

The new ``Py_RunMain()`` function executes the command
(``PyConfig.run_command``), the script (``PyConfig.run_filename``) or
the module (``PyConfig.run_module``) specified on the command line or in
the configuration, and then finalizes Python. It returns an exit status
that can be passed to the ``exit()`` function.

Example of custom Python executable always running in isolated mode::

    #include <Python.h>

    int main(int argc, char *argv[])
    {
        PyConfig config = PyConfig_INIT;
        config.isolated = 1;

        PyInitError err = Py_InitializeFromArgs(&config, argc, argv);
        if (Py_INIT_FAILED(err)) {
            Py_ExitInitError(err);
        }

        /* put more configuration code here if needed */

        return Py_RunMain();
    }

The example is a basic implementation of the "System Python Executable"
discussed in PEP 432.


Memory allocations and Py_DecodeLocale()
----------------------------------------

Python memory allocation functions like ``PyMem_RawMalloc()`` must not
be used before Python pre-initialization.  Calling directly ``malloc()``
and ``free()`` is always safe.

For ``PyPreConfig`` and static ``PyConfig``, the caller is responsible
to manage dynamically allocated strings, but static strings and static
string lists are fine.

Dynamic ``PyConfig`` requires to call ``PyConfig_Clear()`` to release
memory.

``Py_DecodeLocale()`` must not be called before the pre-initialization.

When using dynanic configuration, ``PyConfig_DecodeLocale()`` must be
used instead of ``Py_DecodeLocale()``.


Backwards Compatibility
=======================

This PEP only adds a new API: it leaves the existing API unchanged and
has no impact on the backwards compatibility.


Annex: Python Configuration
===========================

Priority and Rules
------------------

Priority of configuration parameters, highest to lowest:

* ``PyConfig``
* ``PyPreConfig``
* Configuration files
* Command line options
* Environment variables
* Global configuration variables

Priority of warning options, highest to lowest:

* ``PyConfig.warnoptions``
* ``PyConfig.dev_mode`` (add ``"default"``)
* ``PYTHONWARNINGS`` environment variables
* ``-W WARNOPTION`` command line argument
* ``PyConfig.bytes_warning`` (add ``"error::BytesWarning"`` if greater
  than 1, or add ``"default::BytesWarning``)

Rules on ``PyConfig`` and ``PyPreConfig`` parameters:

* If ``isolated`` is non-zero, ``use_environment`` and
  ``user_site_directory`` are set to 0
* If ``legacy_windows_fs_encoding`` is non-zero, ``utf8_mode`` is set to
  0
* If ``dev_mode`` is non-zero, ``allocator`` is set to ``"debug"``,
  ``faulthandler`` is set to 1, and ``"default"`` filter is added to
  ``warnoptions``. But ``PYTHONMALLOC`` has the priority over
  ``dev_mode`` to set the memory allocator.

Configuration Files
-------------------

Python configuration files:

* ``pyvenv.cfg``
* ``python._pth`` (Windows only)
* ``pybuilddir.txt`` (Unix only)

Global Configuration Variables
------------------------------

Global configuration variables mapped to ``PyPreConfig`` fields:

========================================  ================================
Variable                                  Field
========================================  ================================
``Py_LegacyWindowsFSEncodingFlag``        ``legacy_windows_fs_encoding``
``Py_LegacyWindowsFSEncodingFlag``        ``legacy_windows_fs_encoding``
``Py_UTF8Mode``                           ``utf8_mode``
``Py_UTF8Mode``                           ``utf8_mode``
========================================  ================================

Global configuration variables mapped to ``PyConfig`` fields:

========================================  ================================
Variable                                  Field
========================================  ================================
``Py_BytesWarningFlag``                   ``bytes_warning``
``Py_DebugFlag``                          ``parser_debug``
``Py_DontWriteBytecodeFlag``              ``write_bytecode``
``Py_FileSystemDefaultEncodeErrors``      ``filesystem_errors``
``Py_FileSystemDefaultEncoding``          ``filesystem_encoding``
``Py_FrozenFlag``                         ``_frozen``
``Py_HasFileSystemDefaultEncoding``       ``filesystem_encoding``
``Py_HashRandomizationFlag``              ``use_hash_seed``, ``hash_seed``
``Py_IgnoreEnvironmentFlag``              ``use_environment``
``Py_InspectFlag``                        ``inspect``
``Py_InteractiveFlag``                    ``interactive``
``Py_IsolatedFlag``                       ``isolated``
``Py_LegacyWindowsStdioFlag``             ``legacy_windows_stdio``
``Py_NoSiteFlag``                         ``site_import``
``Py_NoUserSiteDirectory``                ``user_site_directory``
``Py_OptimizeFlag``                       ``optimization_level``
``Py_QuietFlag``                          ``quiet``
``Py_UnbufferedStdioFlag``                ``buffered_stdio``
``Py_VerboseFlag``                        ``verbose``
``_Py_HasFileSystemDefaultEncodeErrors``  ``filesystem_errors``
``Py_BytesWarningFlag``                   ``bytes_warning``
``Py_DebugFlag``                          ``parser_debug``
``Py_DontWriteBytecodeFlag``              ``write_bytecode``
``Py_FileSystemDefaultEncodeErrors``      ``filesystem_errors``
``Py_FileSystemDefaultEncoding``          ``filesystem_encoding``
``Py_FrozenFlag``                         ``_frozen``
``Py_HasFileSystemDefaultEncoding``       ``filesystem_encoding``
``Py_HashRandomizationFlag``              ``use_hash_seed``, ``hash_seed``
``Py_IgnoreEnvironmentFlag``              ``use_environment``
``Py_InspectFlag``                        ``inspect``
``Py_InteractiveFlag``                    ``interactive``
``Py_IsolatedFlag``                       ``isolated``
``Py_LegacyWindowsStdioFlag``             ``legacy_windows_stdio``
``Py_NoSiteFlag``                         ``site_import``
``Py_NoUserSiteDirectory``                ``user_site_directory``
``Py_OptimizeFlag``                       ``optimization_level``
``Py_QuietFlag``                          ``quiet``
``Py_UnbufferedStdioFlag``                ``buffered_stdio``
``Py_VerboseFlag``                        ``verbose``
``_Py_HasFileSystemDefaultEncodeErrors``  ``filesystem_errors``
========================================  ================================


``Py_LegacyWindowsFSEncodingFlag`` and ``Py_LegacyWindowsStdioFlag`` are
only available on Windows.

Command Line Arguments
----------------------

Usage::

    python3 [options]
    python3 [options] -c COMMAND
    python3 [options] -m MODULE
    python3 [options] SCRIPT


Command line options mapped to pseudo-action on ``PyConfig`` fields:

================================  ================================
Option                            ``PyPreConfig`` field
================================  ================================
``-X dev``                        ``dev_mode = 1``
``-X utf8=N``                     ``utf8_mode = N``
================================  ================================

Command line options mapped to pseudo-action on ``PyConfig`` fields:

================================  ================================
Option                            ``PyConfig`` field
================================  ================================
``-b``                            ``bytes_warning++``
``-B``                            ``write_bytecode = 0``
``-c COMMAND``                    ``run_module = COMMAND``
``--check-hash-based-pycs=MODE``  ``_check_hash_pycs_mode = MODE``
``-d``                            ``parser_debug++``
``-E``                            ``use_environment = 0``
``-i``                            ``inspect++`` and ``interactive++``
``-I``                            ``isolated = 1``
``-m MODULE``                     ``run_module = MODULE``
``-O``                            ``optimization_level++``
``-q``                            ``quiet++``
``-R``                            ``use_hash_seed = 0``
``-s``                            ``user_site_directory = 0``
``-S``                            ``site_import``
``-t``                            ignored (kept for backwards compatibility)
``-u``                            ``buffered_stdio = 0``
``-v``                            ``verbose++``
``-W WARNING``                    add ``WARNING`` to ``warnoptions``
``-x``                            ``skip_source_first_line = 1``
``-X XOPTION``                    add ``XOPTION`` to ``xoptions``
``-X dev``                        ``dev_mode = 1``
``-X faulthandler``               ``faulthandler = 1``
``-X importtime``                 ``import_time = 1``
``-X pycache_prefix=PREFIX``      ``pycache_prefix = PREFIX``
``-X show_alloc_count``           ``show_alloc_count = 1``
``-X show_ref_count``             ``show_ref_count = 1``
``-X tracemalloc=N``              ``tracemalloc = N``
================================  ================================

``-h``, ``-?`` and ``-V`` options are handled outside ``PyConfig``.

Environment Variables
---------------------

Environment variables mapped to ``PyPreConfig`` fields:

=================================  =============================================
Variable                           ``PyPreConfig`` field
=================================  =============================================
``PYTHONCOERCECLOCALE``            ``coerce_c_locale``, ``coerce_c_locale_warn``
``PYTHONDEVMODE``                  ``dev_mode``
``PYTHONLEGACYWINDOWSFSENCODING``  ``legacy_windows_fs_encoding``
``PYTHONMALLOC``                   ``allocator``
``PYTHONUTF8``                     ``utf8_mode``
=================================  =============================================

Environment variables mapped to ``PyConfig`` fields:

=================================  ====================================
Variable                           ``PyConfig`` field
=================================  ====================================
``PYTHONDEBUG``                    ``parser_debug``
``PYTHONDEVMODE``                  ``dev_mode``
``PYTHONDONTWRITEBYTECODE``        ``write_bytecode``
``PYTHONDUMPREFS``                 ``dump_refs``
``PYTHONEXECUTABLE``               ``program_name``
``PYTHONFAULTHANDLER``             ``faulthandler``
``PYTHONHASHSEED``                 ``use_hash_seed``, ``hash_seed``
``PYTHONHOME``                     ``home``
``PYTHONINSPECT``                  ``inspect``
``PYTHONIOENCODING``               ``stdio_encoding``, ``stdio_errors``
``PYTHONLEGACYWINDOWSSTDIO``       ``legacy_windows_stdio``
``PYTHONMALLOCSTATS``              ``malloc_stats``
``PYTHONNOUSERSITE``               ``user_site_directory``
``PYTHONOPTIMIZE``                 ``optimization_level``
``PYTHONPATH``                     ``module_search_path_env``
``PYTHONPROFILEIMPORTTIME``        ``import_time``
``PYTHONPYCACHEPREFIX,``           ``pycache_prefix``
``PYTHONTRACEMALLOC``              ``tracemalloc``
``PYTHONUNBUFFERED``               ``buffered_stdio``
``PYTHONVERBOSE``                  ``verbose``
``PYTHONWARNINGS``                 ``warnoptions``
=================================  ====================================

``PYTHONLEGACYWINDOWSFSENCODING`` and ``PYTHONLEGACYWINDOWSSTDIO`` are
specific to Windows.

``PYTHONDEVMODE`` is mapped to ``PyPreConfig.dev_mode`` and
``PyConfig.dev_mode``.


Annex: Python 3.7 API
=====================

Python 3.7 has 4 functions in its C API to initialize and finalize
Python:

* ``Py_Initialize()``, ``Py_InitializeEx()``: initialize Python
* ``Py_Finalize()``, ``Py_FinalizeEx()``: finalize Python

Python can be configured using scattered global configuration variables
(like ``Py_IgnoreEnvironmentFlag``) and using the following functions:

* ``PyImport_AppendInittab()``
* ``PyImport_ExtendInittab()``
* ``PyMem_SetAllocator()``
* ``PyMem_SetupDebugHooks()``
* ``PyObject_SetArenaAllocator()``
* ``Py_SetPath()``
* ``Py_SetProgramName()``
* ``Py_SetPythonHome()``
* ``Py_SetStandardStreamEncoding()``
* ``PySys_AddWarnOption()``
* ``PySys_AddXOption()``
* ``PySys_ResetWarnOptions()``

There is also a high-level ``Py_Main()`` function.


Copyright
=========

This document has been placed in the public domain.