For Standalone clusters, it seems that Flink does not provide such a feature.
In general, at the execution level, we don't talk about DataStream, but we talk about Job.
If your Flink is running on YARN, you can use YARN's Node Label feature to assign a Label to some Nodes.
Earlier this year, I had solved an issue that could solve the problem of specifying a node label when submitting a job for Flink on YARN.
This feature is available in the recently released Flink 1.6.0.
Don't know if it meets your requirements?